Second Empire vs Galaxia: Was Trevize Right?

The Foundation series ended unsettlingly, and slightly anti-climactically, with “Foundation and Earth”. The constant debate between Trevize and Bliss over ‘Gaia vs Isolatism’ was interesting and gave much food for thought, and the technical explanations littered throughout the rest of the book were ingenious and worthy of appreciation. However, I am not entirely happy with the logic advanced by Trevize for his final decision.

A summary of his argument is that in the debate of ‘Gaia vs the Second Empire’, Seldon’s Plan, in discounting the possibility of other, non-human forms of intelligence, would fail. Therefore, to ensure the survival of humanity against threats from outside this galaxy, it would be necessary for human beings to unite and form one Galaxia to stave off external divisive attacks.

This argument, albeit with its merits, seems to take an entirely different tack from Trevize’s main refrain throughout the book: that it is one’s individualism and free will, enabling dissonance, debate and rebellion, that sparks reform and advancement of the species; also that human beings are human beings mainly by virtue of their free will, and to rob them of this would not necessarily be a good thing.

I can understand that when Trevize discovered the looming threat of invasion from other galaxies, possibly by more advanced forms of intelligence, he resorted to humans’ inherent instinct for strength in numbers, and saw the merit of Galaxia. However, the question is, is it worth sacrificing your free will and humanity while humanity lasts in order to guarantee survival? Isn’t it better for humanity to perhaps risk dying out earlier (in the grand scheme of things) in exchange for retaining their free will, what makes them most human?

Finally, I’d like to share my deepest mistrust of Fallon and abhorrence of the cliffhanger Asimov finished “Foundation and Earth” on. My dear man, the sequels were supposed to give us closure – not leave us more unsatisfied than “Second Foundation” left us! In hindsight, I preferred the comparatively neat ending of “Second Foundation”, with its calming implication that the Seldon Plan would run its course, putting humanity back on track.

While this may be societal “inertia”, as Pelorat may have said, I like the idea of human beings remaining, in the most fundamental sense, the way we are. In essence, in the “First Foundation vs Second Foundation vs Galaxia” debate, even though I think the Second Foundation as ultimate rulers might have been less than ideal, I would much prefer it to Galaxia, where people are happier but in a sense opiated. Although, it may be that as the Second Foundation developed we may have ultimately come to a crossroads where the idea of Galaxia was thought of independently. So maybe what I resent is its external enforcement? I’m beginning to feel that I’d be happier with the decision (happiernot happy) if it had been made by the Second Foundationers, who after all represent a gradually evolving humanity rather than human-robot bastards (meant in the standard dictionary definition – no profanity intended). This would mean that we had made the decision for ourselves, rather than having someone – even if in consultation with a (single) human like Trevize – force it upon us.

Why is this difference important, you may ask? Well, mainly because robots possess only an external view of humanity – they of necessity focused more on the literal survival of Homo sapiens than the propagation of humanity with the essence intact – free will.

It can be argued that Trevize decided in favor of Galaxia mostly as a result of the sudden realization of the threat of annihilation in the future. He may not have been able to really weigh the philosophical and finer points of the decision he made.

Anyway, this is what makes me uneasy about, and unhappy with, Asimov’s conclusion to the Foundation series. If you have any points to add, or a different perspective to offer, I’d love to hear from you, so please drop a line in the comments section.


4 comments on “Second Empire vs Galaxia: Was Trevize Right?

  1. Was a disappointing ending to a classic series. It was padded and there is one unanswered question. Why does Fallon call Daniel by the name of her robot caretaker if he looks human and nothing like the robot?

    • I agree. And as to that, I know Fallon’s transducer lobes have only been said to channel energy for purposes such as telekinesis, but it’s conceivable that she used them to detect the fact that he was a robot. Alternatively, having lived with Jemby for so long, she may have had other parameters for recognizing robots by. Given Solaria was one of the original 50 Spacer worlds (meaning they were as close as you could get to Earth-like conditions), presumably the robotic characteristics of Daneel and Jemby were similar. What those parameters were, I haven’t the slightest. In fact, I think the first alternative is more likely: given the transducer lobes can sense energy, it seems likely that she’d be able to sense the mechanisms operating/working in robots. Humans, being completely organic, would probably lack, or have a different type of, an energy signature. That’s just a guess though.

  2. Also,why they needed travel all these places to find out why Galaxia was the better alternative is unclear. How does that help prove his decision?

    • Correct me if I’m wrong, but I think most of the time, they were doing the equivalent of “stopping for directions”. But that may have had unexpected benefits as well. It’s possible that looking at so many possible ways of existence, and being dissatisfied with them due to reasons such as nonchalance with respect to inter- and (what’s more relevant) intra-species violence (Solaria and Alpha come to mind), Galaxia may have seemed like the best alternative currently available – especially once Trevize realized what the un-explicitly mentioned axiom was in the Seldon Plan – that humans were the only sentient beings of significance in the universe. Faced with that, Galaxia may have seemed like humans’ best shot at survival in the face of the threat of possible future encounters with non-human intelligence. Essentially, the other worlds served as a “What Not To Do” guidebook that made Galaxia, with all its flaws, look like the only way out.

ask. debate. scribble.

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